What Brad Pitt and Social Media Have in Common

I recently saw the movie Moneyball, and, while I’m not hugely into baseball, really enjoyed it. The story, based on the book by Michael Lewis, was fascinating, and it was enticing to watch Brad’s character go up to bat (no pun intended) with figures who told him his new, different line of thinking would never replace an old one.

The central premise of Moneyball is that the collected wisdom of baseball insiders (including players, managers, coaches, scouts, etc.) is subjective with statistics such as battering averages and stolen bases used to weigh player value. The movie is based on the true story of the Oakland A’s manager, Billy Beane (Pitt), who, when faced with the reality that his team has a budget less than a third of that of the Yankees, for example, pursued a new strategy for putting his team together.

Rather than stick with fellow baseball know-it-alls, Beane opts to hire Peter Brand (played by Jonah Hill), a Yale economics grad who proposes a new system for selecting players, one that involves statistical analysis rather than studying videos of potential.

Without ruining too much, many predictable obstacles ensue: Beane is told he’s crazy. He’s told this will never work. He’s told he cannot change the game. That the old way of playing the (player-selection) game has been the same basically forever, and it’s a system that works. It’s a tilted system that favors the more economically inclined, but it’s the way it’s always been.

When I was thinking about the film afterward, I realized the new strategy displayed could be likened, in many ways, to the evolution of social media. Social media has shaken up the public relations, marketing and customer service worlds. It was approached cautiously at first, and to much skepticism. Why change traditional marketing and PR? They work. They function in a way that they’ve always functioned.

Yet, as we all know, even though traditional methods did, and do, still work, incorporating in these new options also works. And with a lot of tweaking (Beane adjusts his team several times), it can produce something really amazing, and reap the same kinds of benefits that those who still play the game the old way have amassed over the years.

Like with baseball, social media has helped even an uneven playing field …

Connecting the Dots

I told myself I wasn’t going to write a Steve Jobs post, but I’ve succumbed to temptation. Everyone else is doing one too and I probably don’t have much to say that hasn’t already been addressed, but, I guess, out of respect for him if not anything else, here goes –

Though Steve obviosuly wasn’t someone I knew personally, I felt extremely devastated to learn of his death. Death always gives me an icky feeling, which is normal, of course, but it has such an odd finality, especially for people who fight diseases, who come so close to surviving, who can “beat” it over and over again over the years, yet, finally, when death comes, it’s completely over. Forever. Done.

RIP Steve Jobs

I hadn’t really thought of him in this way prior to this week, but, my current profession exists largely because of Steve’s influence, because of various facets of a world that he created. It’s a lifestyle that I stumbled and evolved in totally accidentally, yet, one that has brought me so many various forms of happiness.

I’m glued to my iPhone and use it for essentially everything. The word “addiction” could easily suffice. My iPod got me through college, and I can’t hardly remember the days I couldn’t carry an abundant music library with me at any time.

But more so than the physical products, I was most intrigued by what he stood for, by the qualities he demonstrated. Motivation. Perseverance.  Redemption from perceived failure. Thinking outside the box. While he was human and surely had subsequent human flaws, he conveyed these things in an unprecedented way. In a way that changed our world forever. In a way that illustrates it can be done.

I was incredibly moved by the video of the Stanford commencement speech Jobs delivered in 2005. I love philosophical, thought-provoking topics like the matters he addressed, and found myself becoming teary-eyed while watching it upon his death.

There are numerous takeaways from that address, but the one that affected me most is a lesson I’ve been noticing more and more frequently as my life progresses, is the one about connecting dots:

“Of course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward … You can’t connect the dots looking forward, you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future … Believing that the dots will connect down the road will give you the confidence to follow your heart even when it leads you off the path, and that will make all the difference.”

I recently made a comment about how the major aspects of my life have resulted from “a series of accidents.” Even currently, it’s fascinating how the dots have connected in ways I’d never have imagined they would. I have a humongous fear of uncertainty and the unknown, and, while I can now acknowledge how the past has influenced my present and that, while it wasn’t what I planned nor expected, many things have unraveled positively, I always get weirded out when I have to make decisions about the future. About major life changes. About the unknown.

I’ve now made the conscious decision to trust the dots, to take the risks, and to be open-minded to more potentially wonderful accidents.

Rewarding Brand Loyalty

There were some great panels at the FoodService Social Media Universe Conference, and one of the stand-outs was on “rewarding brand loyalty.”

The panel consisted of Jon Cardr of MOGL, Scott Meldrum of Pollin8, Tanya Salcido of Design Action Studios and was moderated by Julia Staffen of Empathica, Inc. They relayed many great points on acquiring and maintaining brand loyalty, and many of these points can be applied to both restaurants and other venues alike.

Creating Loyal Customers

Here are some of the takeaways on brand loyalty:

  • Loyal customers spend 65% more than an indifferent customer, visit 2-3x a month vs others who come once and are 3x more likely to talk about brands online.
  • Successful businesses are able to build trust with their audience, tell their story, define their purpose and mission, plus are able to easily communicate with their audience 24/7.
  • Do consumers expect more from loyalty programs? Yes. “I will connect with you if there is something in it for me” – now there’s some form of exclusive content tied in as well.
  • Keeping consumers faithful requires a “combination of conversation and activation.”
  • Punch cards are going mobile: There are now mobile apps that track a person’s frequency at a venue.
  • Show that you get your fans – People don’t want to connect with a company, they want to connect with other brands
  • It’s not just a dialogue anymore, it’s a trialogue — between you, a customer, and THEIR customers — they are now a brand and have their own audience. Do what makes sense for your brand, your customers and their customers.
  • If you can give the consumer a closer relationship with the brand or the product than they would have otherwise, you have something you can harness. For example, if you’re a restaurant, and  the lines are always crazy, offer currency in exchange for a checkin – is it premium seating, expedited service, skipping ahead in line? Figure out something that has high perceived value from the customer.
  • Brands should focus on what’s ubiquitous -– pay attention to what’s emerging, trending. But brands also need solutions today and they need to reach as many people as they can through whatever platform/across multiple platforms.
  • Test/have something foundational before you leap into other avenues.
  • “The web isn’t social. People are social. Take one person engaging with another in a conversation about your brand and then apply to that a platform you’re interested in capitalizing on… Figure out what is going to stimulate that conversation.”
  • A great product, great service, etc., that’s loyalty, that’s always been loyalty. Just then apply it to your platform.
  • Why are customers loyal to this product, to this brand? Understand the mechanics and emotional tipping point of that, and then gage how to do it on one platform vs another.
  • It’s more expensive to maintain a customer than attain a customer. When you get them,  hang on to them.


Mike Stelzner Explains How to “Launch”

Mike Stelzner, founder of Social Media Examiner, visited LinkedOC last week to share some great incites and information about his new book, Launch.

Think of Business as a Rocketship

Mike Stelzner began Social Media Examiner in October 2009 and, in less than two years, it’s become one of the top business blogs, with a subscription base of over 80,000. Being an “overnight success” himself, he advised thinking of business as a rockship as it needs to be navigated, with the goal being to reach new heights; somewhere beyond where you are today.

To achieve this, you need people: peers, perspective customers, etc. Like space travel, everything is moving in orbit: industries advance, ideas expand, product support moves and customers move on.

With change comes questions about how to proceed. The best way to move forward in a continually-evolving world is to provide things that will never become outdated: incite, recommendations, etc. People don’t want products and they don’t want to be sold.

Mike provided the example of trying to brush the hair of his young daughters; they don’t sit still. You can’t switch angles and keep trying to brush a child’s hair, but they’ll continue moving as well and the attempts won’t be successful. We have to stop treating people like kids, and instead, change the entire approach rather than the angle of the “wrong” approach.


Mike quoted the definition of marketing per the American Marketing Association:
Note that it doesn’t discuss selling but rather “exchanging offerings” of things that “have value.”

The question, then, for markers is, “How can I attain quality leads, gain trust, break through the noise, etc. etc.?”

The answer? Trial and Error.

Focus on People

Stelzner placed huge emphasis on focusing on people, and offerings things for FREE. He says to  help solve problems at no cost as when you help them with smaller issues, they’ll develop trust in you, and they’ll then consult you for bigger issues.

The enabler is content — it has unlimited scalability. Peoples’ desires don’t change. When you give something away as a gift, you trigger the question, “how much more (would they be willing to gain from you)?

While this may seem counter-intuitive, Stelzner says to give away all your secrets — no one can tell it like you can.

Don’t focus on yourself, products or services. Shine the spotlight on others: outside experts, successful peers, etc. When you lift other people up, they’ll lift you up! –

Rule of Reciprocity

Reciprocity if often abused by marketers (car salesmen, for example). When he says give something away for free, Mike really means to offer it as a gift, not a “trick” to automatically anticipate something in return.

A true gift will make you valuable. What if you received a wedding gift that was an ad? You’d be turned off to it.

“Caging Marketing”: When someone asks how they can help you, but then goes to explain what they’d like from you in return. It’s going for the quick kill rather than waiting it out a bit for better rewards.

“The Elevation Principle”

Form great content! HubSpot (a site I personally love and read frequently), for example, markets themselves entirely through content. They don’t advertise, they don’t even have their logo on some of their affiliated sites. They offer everything for free, and they get around 25,000 leads/month.

Create content that helps your readers make decisions: review books, products, events, and provide your opinions. Do case studies: share successful stories of businesses in your industry. Reports based on surveys are also highly effective. Survey people and create a free report on the findings. Survey results tend to be viral and they have a long SEO/shelf life.  Contests are another good way to build relationships with others.

Show problem > solution > results.

Primary Fuel vs. Nuclear Fuel

Primary Fuel is regularly-produced content. It keeps you moving, is core to growth, draws people to you, establishes trust and brings people back.
Nuclear Fuel is more difficult to produce, used less frequently, has bigger impact, draws people in, has a long tail, gets you noticed, etc.


How do you plan on using these tips to LAUNCH your business?

Innovation without Borders: TEDx

TED is a small nonprofit dedicated to ideas worth spreading, and its TEDx program is “designed to to give communities, organizations and individuals the opportunity to stimulate dialogue through TED-like experiences at the local level.”

Last week I attended TEDxOrangeCoast. The event featured a variety of speakers on numerous topics, with the underlying intention of inspiring innovative thinking. The event featured 25 live speakers as well as several video clips from other TED functions. There were also dance performances and one woman, Sharon Wray, who conveyed her message while constantly moving.

I’m going to highlight two specific speakers: John Joliffe and Alice Shin. John spoke more generally and philosophically whereas Alice’s account is more of a case study, one that specifically involves social media and, oddly, negates much of the logic most in the industry honor.

Invention vs Innovation

John was very entertaining and also emceed the first half of the day. His presentation specifically focused on innovation vs invention.

He said that invention is bringing an idea (that already exists) to light, whereas innovation comes to you. It doesn’t evolve or improve, and it’s not a human accomplishment. In other words, it doesn’t already exist. It’s waiting to be discovered, developed, realized… Did Ghandi and other similar figures choose to lead, or were they led?

Innovators have a “quiet mind.”

There are three levels of growth and development -

  1. Conformity – worried about belonging; we go along to get along
  2. Independence – the need to find our own path
  3. Autonomy – we agree to disagree

During this growth, we are loud-minded.

The 5 Principles of a Quiet Mind -

  1. Innovatores don’t play to crowds. they don’t care what people think.
  2. Give up the idea of right and wrong, good and bad, positive and negative. All that matters is true and false.
  3. Give up trying to find answers (no one has them). Look instead for incites.
  4. Give up trying to find answers. Instead look for incites.
  5. Commitment to eliminate as much junk as possible.

John says that once you achieve these qualities of a quiet mind, you’re greatly-positioned to innovate!

“The First Viral Eatery”

Alice and her family are behind the renowned Kogi BBQ truck.

When they first started, they were doing business the way everyone told them to. They’d hang out in popular LA locations but be chased away by clubowners and cops, or they’d find a great location with lots of foot traffic, but nowhere to park.

Then, they started going to smaller spots, and people started noticing them and specifically requesting them to come out to their cities.

Every mistake they made was made doing business how they were told. When they started doing things their own way, they started thriving.They knew they were creating a new flavor profile that LA was ready for.

They don’t have a PR firm and they’ve never done any traditional advertising. They only have a blog and social media presence. They’ve never had a strategy or evoked certain tactics to get followers; they just kind of go with the flow. This has resulted in 86,000 twitter fans and 9,000 hits a day on their blog.

They use twitter strictly as a promotional tool; they don’t use hashtags, RT other posts or communicate with their fans. This is interesting in that it goes against the “rules” of social media for business, but it’s worked for them, and they take pride in doing their own thing.

Inclusion or Exclusion: Which does Social Media Cause?

Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/onlythis/

I came across a Sacramento article entitled “Facebook leaves some feeling left out.” In it, a couple people are quoted noting they experience jealousy when their friends or online acquaintances are doing fun things or hanging out with certain people.

While I definitely see how these feelings are justified, I found this fascinating because, for me, Facebook does the opposite.

Seeing peoples’ trips, etc., on Facebook makes me feel more included, both in the happenings of those peoples’ lives as well as with the places they visit. Even though I haven’t been to Disneyland myself in a couple years, I always get a kick out of seeing photos from others’ experiences there. If someone discusses an upcoming vacation, I’ll often try to check back in a few days to check out their photos if it’s someone/somewhere that interests me. It’s pleasing to see people encounter enjoyable experiences, and I’ve seldom, to my immediate recollection, felt more excluded from someone directly as a result of not getting do something they got to do; I feel more included by getting to see it (okay, that sounds creepy, but you know what I mean).

In response to Larissa, who expressed feeling jealous that others are out being social while she’s stuck at home – not to seem insensitive, but the ball’s in her court. If she doesn’t like knowing what her peers are up to, she should steer clear of the Facebook news feed. Likewise, especially now, there’s tons of social groups — from networking, to hobbies, to common interests, etc. — to seek out and get involved in if you’re desiring a more active social life.

I definitely used to be that girl: incredibly shy, a major homebody, etc., but as I branched out, started meeting more people and attending more social functions, I found I really enjoyed it. And, as a result, I don’t feel like my life is lacking in any regards in terms of spectating others on social media.

It’s a difficult barrier to breach when you’re not sure if a new group will “welcome” you, but once you break it, the rewards are great. Several of my most endeared friends currently are ones I’d have never met had I not overcome my fear of trying new things and meeting new people.


What do you think? Do you think social media causes more exclusion or inclusion to social communities?

“We’re Living in the Beginning of the Humanization of Business”

I really enjoyed Gary Vaynerchuk’s SXSW presentation. He was very honest and human and gave a lot of great points. In light of his new book The Thank You Economy, Gary discussed the humanization of business and what the future has in store.

A key point he made that still resonates with me is this one:

“We’re living in the beginning of the humanization of business.”
He gave an example of a dog: It used to be the case that spot was outside. We were very passive about him. Now, Spot hangs inside. He eats with the family. His food is more gourmet than ours. He sleeps in bed with us, etc. The dog has been humanized. The same is happening to business — we are humanizing brands.

Here’s several points he addresses throughout his discussion:

1. “If content is king, context is god.”

2. More content is being created in 48 hours than the beginning of time through 2003.

3. There’s a constant battle over who can create the greatest content, but most people are full of shit — they talk themselves up, but are  rarely genuinely about the customer.
: a guy bought a case of wine from him. He found out that the guy was a fan of a certain sports figure, so Gary had his team buy something related to that person.
– Take customer service outside the contest of what you do.
– Hit an emotional center.

4. Customers feel like they know someone when they’ve actually talked to them.

5. A lot of people/businesses are acting like a 19-year-old guy: trying to close too soon without developing the relationship first.

6. There is no such thing as a social media campaign; it’s simply like a one-night stand. You want to retain your customer.
: Old Spice — their campaign was deemed successful because they got so many followers, but they blew a huge opportunity to engage with them. They didn’t talk to anyone. They were all push, but no FEEL.
– They didn’t build up community the way they should have.

7. We’re being asked to show ROI, but it doesn’t matter: it’s the same as a guy standing on a street counting to see how many cars go by. It’s not an accurate assessment.

8. We’re going to reach a point where the “little guy” is going to be important. He’s going to tweet about running, and the next day, he’ll have running gear being dropped off to his house.

9. We’re talking about things in a way we never have before: 10 years ago, you’d have never called up your buddy and said, “This Tropicana is great, yummers!” NOW WE DO.

10. There’s people that still think social media is a fad. But guess what? People said the internet was a fad. Netflix was a fad. Amazon was a fad. All these businesses are thriving, and putting others out of business.

Fear and the Art of Creation

When I come across people and businesses who aren’t active on Twitter and Facebook, the primary reason seems to be uncertainty. When you’re not sure about a new medium, whether you’ll be good or successful at it, jumping on board can be an extremely scary prospect. I’m more than guilty of this myself – I had a lot of fear about starting this site because I wasn’t sure what the outcome would be. I was scared of “failure,” of being judged, of being held accountable.

I attended the “Fear and the Art of Creation” panel at SXSW. Presented by Chris Guillebeau and Jonathan Fields, the panel discussed the primal fear that usually underlies our inaction, and the ways that moving from ideation to action can produce success.

Needless to say, Jonathan and Chris brought up a lot of valid points.

Here’s some of the takeaways:

  • Uncertainty and risk are essential to creating anything. If you go into (anything) thinking you know everything, you’ll miss something; you’ll miss a new opportunity. Being open to uncertainty allows for the potential to make things better.
  • Be specific. Know what you’re afraid of: Rejection? Not unique? Criticism? Being defined by mediocre outcome? Leaving the comfort of what you’re already doing? Losing your good name? Regret?
  • We have stories that we tell ourselves about what could happen. They’re often negative; they’re often produced out of fear.
  • REFRAME! For example, when a patient is being offered surgery, studies show that if they’re presented with, “there’s a 20% chance of death,” the person will decline the procedure. However, when they’re offered “80% chance of survival,” they said yes.
  • Every process begins with a hunch or idea. ACT. Anxiety and fear are anticipatory emotions. ACTION makes things real.
  • We’re hard-wired to be judged for taking action in the face of uncertainty and being wrong. The best way to learn is to act, seek feedback (and not to avoid that).
  • The first steps are always more important than the later ones. There always has to be risk of uncertainty in order to learn.
  • Permission: many feel like they need “permission” (from themselves, from others) to do something. You don’t need it. Think about asking different questions. For example, when you leave a good, yet unfulfilling job, and someone asks, “how could you leave?” Instead, think, “how could I stay for the next 40 years (if it’s not bringing me happiness)?”
  • “There’s no something from nothing without uncertainty and fear.”

Foodie Blogger Leaves an Important Lesson about Storytelling

Due to a scheduling conflict, I stumbled into a SXSWi panel featuring Seattle-based foodie blogger Molly Wizenberg who blogs, has her own book and, in 2009, opened her own restuarant with her husband.

While I myself am not a foodie blogger, I thought I still may take away something, if even minor, from the presentation since both Molly and I do talk about food to a certain capacity. To my surprise, she ended up conveying one of the most honest and humbling takeaways from all the panels I attended, and the tips are relevant to anyone, restauranteers included, who talk about food online.

The  main point Molly made was that you have to tell a story. Talking about food isn’t really about the food itself, but rather about the story surrounding the food.

“Don’t tell me what you had for breakfast,” Molly noted, “tell me why it matters.” She claimed the  biggest mistake food bloggers make it just talking about the food. If you mentioned you had a power bar for breakfast, for example, that’s boring. But when you tie in that you ate it while walking across a bridge, took in smells, etc., it suddenly becomes so much more fascinating.

Stories about food have the power to bring back certain memories, and that’s a great way to stimulate a reader’s attention. Restaurants

Guy Kawasaki on How to be Enchanting

This morning, Guy Kawasaki spoke at South by Southwest on the Art of Enchantment. He then proceeded to offer 1o tips on how to be enchanting. Here’s a basic outline and summary:
*A couple points were missed and are indicated so.

Art of Enchantment

  • Enchantment – process of becoming more likable and trustworthy
  • Delighting people; mutually beneficial goals
  • You want to be enchanting – it’ll help you change the world
  • It’s hard be trusted if you’re not liked


How to be Enchanting – 10 Tips

1. Be likable

  • GREAT smile. The eyes are the key to a great smile.
  • Dress for a tie (pun intended): There’s 3 ways you can dress – under, over (“I am better than you”), EQUAL dress – we’re peers
  • Have the perfect handshake: eye contact, firm grip, etc.

2. Achieve trustworthiness

  • You have to trust others before they will trust you (Amazon, Zappos, Nordstrom)
  • Bake, don’t eat (don’t think how big a slice you can have, think about how you can make more)
  • Default to a “yes” attitude

3. Get ready to launch!

  • Do something great (DICEE) – Deep (it does lots of stuff), Intelligent (when you look at it, you say, “somebody was thinking…”), Complete, Empowering, Elegant
  • Make it short, sweet and swallowable
  • Conduct a premortem: Say, let’s think of how/why our product could fail

4. Launch

  • Tell a story
  • Plant many seeds: Suck up to all genres of people; Nobodies are the new somebodies; You don’t know who may end up being influential for you
  • Use salient points: Miles/gallon vs. yearly costs; Degrees vs. heating costs; Gigabytes vs number of songs
  • Overcome resistance
  • Provide social proof (iPod – iPod came out, you started seeing white ear buds everywhere, you wanted one, you got one, you perpetuated this phenomenon)
  • Find a bright spot.

5. Enchant all the influencers

  • Look at the middle and bottoms of companies – those are the people that get work done, that are influential)

6. Endure

  • Don’t use/rely on money: Money is the enemy of enchantment
  • Invoke reciprocation: In your day-to-day actions, when you do things for people, and they thank you, you say “I know you would do the same for me.” It tells the other person, “I think you’re honorable,” and, “you owe me.” Let people pay you back – you can do more for them and vice versa. Build an eco-system: Have partners, developers, websites, user groups, consultants, conferences

7. Present

  • Need to speak and present. Customize the introduction. e.g., If you’re visiting a foreign country, show that you immersed yourself in their culture
  • Sell your dream: Steve jobs doesn’t say, “you’re buying $188 worth of parts and a contract for one of the worst carrier services.” He says, “there’s an app for that!” etc.
  • Key points to pitch: Number of slides you should have in a powerpoint presentation: 10; number of minutes it should last: 20; size your font should be: 30

8. (missed)

  • Remove the speedbumps (illegible captchas, for example)
  • Provide value: information, insights, assistance
  • Enagage: Fast, Many (even the “nobodies” – you don’t know who will affect you) and Often. Twitter and Facebook are core to marketing; they’re not  context, not just something you should just be doing at the end of the day

9. Enchant up – enchant people you work for

  • When your boss asks you to do something, drop everything else
  • Prototype fast – if your boss says she needs a powerpoint in 3 days, in an hour, send an outline, ask for feedback.
  • Deliver bad news early (and with solutions)!

10. Enchant people who work for you

  • Provide MAP – Mastery, Autonomy (“we’re not going to micro-manage”), Purpose (“you’re going to master new skills…”) *notice that money wasn’t mentioned. Teach them to master new skills.
  • Suck It up – never ask them to do anything that you yourself wouldn’t do

Seth Godin on Initiative

On Thursday, hundreds of people gathered in the beautiful Renée and Henry Segerstrom Concert Hall in Costa Mesa to hear Seth Godin speak. Organized by Bryan Elliott of LinkedOC, the event provided a unique opportunity to hear first-hand from a highly-respected individual in the marketing world.

As stated in Seth’s bio:
American Way Magazine calls him, “America’s Greatest Marketer,” and his blog is perhaps the most popular in the world written by a single individual. His latest book, Poke The Box, is a call to action about the initiative you’re taking – in your job or in your life, and Seth once again breaks the traditional publishing model by releasing it through The Domino Project.

The key take-away from Seth’s presentation was to take initiative. He opened with a photo of cafeteria ladies and made the point that cafeteria ladies, by virtue, were underappreciated and replaceable. We need to strive to not fall into such a lull. With current internet trends evolving more rapidly than ever before, we no longer have time to copy the guy before us, to merely blend in. He noted that many people don’t take leaps out of fear, when really, fear should be motivating – if you were to assume that the next thing you’re going to do is fail, there’s nothing to be afraid of.

Many people don’t take risks because they’re afraid they will fail, but, as Seth stated, “you can’t flip a one-sided coin.” You have to have failure, you have to have fear, in order to reach success. Figure out how to make an art that matters, and, literally, GO.


Seth included a few lists of six factors that provided a backbone for his presentation:

The first was “Six Things that are Foundations of a Functioning Organization” –

  1. aware of what works
  2. educated
  3. connected
  4. consistent
  5. an asset (for example, Zappos – they are completely trusted)
  6. productive

The second list was “Six Things for a Successful Project” –

  1. an idea
  2. people to work on it
  3. a place to build and organize it
  4. raw materials
  5. distribution
  6. money

The third, “Six Things You Need that You Can Bring to the Capital” –

  1. financial
  2. network
  3. intellectual
  4. physical
  5. prestige
  6. instigation

What are some of the ways that hospitality venues can use the above points to take initiative in their marketing?